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Course Description Guide 2019-20

IB / AP (2019-20)

The INTERNATIONAL BACCALAUREATE diploma program (IB DP) is a two-year, intellectually challenging curriculum with an international perspective for students in grades 11 and 12. The IB diploma candidate takes six IB tests in the following subject areas: English Literature, Social Studies, World Language, Mathematics, Science and an elective. In addition, each student writes a 4,000-word research essay and fulfills an extra-curricular and community service requirement. A valuable component of the program is a course called Theory of Knowledge, which teaches how knowledge is acquired and validated.

Academic Expectations: Students are expected to maintain at least a C average at the end of the first semester in SL courses and at the end of the first year of HL courses.

Exam Expectations: Students enrolled in IB courses are expected to take the IB exam. A fee applies to all students taking an IB exam.

Additional Note about IB Science SL Exam Decisions:  Students in an IB Science SL course in grade 11 who plan to continue HL in grade 12 are encouraged to take the IB SL exam for formative assessment and for a contingency plan. If a student is unable to take the IB SL exam due to IB requirements or special circumstances, the student will take a mock IB SL exam before the end of the school year. If the student does not continue with HL in grade 12, the mock exam will contribute 25% of the student’s second semester grade in the SL subject.

Additional Note about IB Spanish B SL, IB French B SL or IB Latin SL Exam Decision: Students in an IB Language SL course in grade 11 who do not plan to take the HL course in their senior year are required to complete a virtual component of the course outside of class that will total 28 hours throughout the year. These students are also expected to take the IB exam.  A fee applies to all students taking the exam. The decision to complete the virtual component of the course must be made prior to October 1.

ADVANCED PLACEMENT (AP) denotes courses which are part of the curriculum of the College Entrance Examination Board. They are designed to allow students to do college-level work in high school. To be admitted to AP courses, the student must meet prerequisites.

Academic Expectations:  Students are expected to maintain at least a C average at the end of the first semester .

Exam Expectations:  Students are expected to take the AP exam at the end of the year. A fee applies to all students taking an AP exam.
 
For additional academic information regarding grading scales, exams, progress reports, etc., please consult the Student-Parent Handbook (login will be sent to new students in Mid-August).

IB and AP English

List of 3 items.

  • IB English A: Literature - Grade 11

    Grade 11
    1 Credit
    Prerequisites: English 10 Honors and teacher recommendation
    Additional Fee:  IB examination fees will be incurred the second year of the course.

    IB English A:  Literature is the first part of the two year IB English A:  Literature HL course. Students will study a range of texts from different periods, styles and genres while developing the ability to engage in close, detailed analysis of individual texts.  Students learn to read and write analytically through Socratic classroom discussion and written models focusing on formal, expository projects. The class is a requirement for students pursuing the IB diploma but is open to advanced English students who are curious readers and developing critical writers.

    Units of Study
    Reading Analytically – New Criticism and Post colonialism
    Writing Analytically - Body Paragraph 1
    Non-fiction Read / Write - Body Paragraph 2
    Read / Write Contemporary Fiction - Practice Written Assignment 1
    Drama and Psychoanalytic Criticism – Group Presentations
    Queer Theory – Practice Written Assignment 2
    Critical Research – Individual Oral Presentations
    Works in Translation – Group Presentations
    Works in Translation – IB Written Assignment
  • IB English A: Literature HL - Grade 12

    Grade 12
    1 Credit
    Prerequisite: Teacher recommendation based on the expectation of B or higher in IB English A:  Literature
    Additional Fee: Students in this course are expected to take the IB exam.  A fee applies to all students taking this exam.

    This is the second year of the two year IB English A: Literature HL course. This course explores the human condition and the craft of the writer through detailed study of a variety of literary genres. The course prepares students for the IB Language A: Literature HL Individual Oral Commentary and spring written examinations.

    As we study how writers explore the world and humanity, we learn more about others and ourselves. In the first semester, which focuses on Detailed Study (Part 2 of the four-part Language A curriculum) students will take a deep dive into the work of three writers in three separate genres, spending about one month studying each writer and genre. Throughout these studies, students will research the historical and cultural context of each work, perform close readings of brief passages, analyze the effects of the writers’ choices, and develop oral and written commentaries that combine close reading, contextual understanding, and knowledge of literary devices to share students’ interpretations of the works or pieces of the works. Though each semester will provide opportunities for students to practice and improve their reading, writing, speaking, and listening skills through a variety of formative and summative assessments, the first semester will focus primarily on delivering well-composed impromptu remarks. In the second semester of the course, the Genre Study (Part 3 of the four-part Language A curriculum), students will study four works of drama or four poets’ collections and practice writing comparative analyses. Students will learn through a mixture of close reading and annotation, class discussion, informal writing, performance-based approaches to analyses, and mentor text study. Those seeking to improve their skills as critical thinkers, innovators, communicators, and collaborators should strongly consider taking this course. Success in the course depends on students’ willingness to collaborate, engage deeply in the reading, and devote time and consideration to their writing. Students must be open-minded, curious, respectful of all classmates, and able to work independently.

    Units of Study
    Analyzing Rhetoric and Investigating the Impact of Historical and Cultural Context: Prose Other Than Fiction
    Analyzing Fiction/Drama and the Craft of the Writer
    Analyzing and Interpreting Poetry
    Preparing for the Individual Oral Commentary
    Drama Study: How Dialogue Directs a Scene
    Drama Study: Crafting Character, Conflict, and Setting
    Drama Study: Past and Present- Comparing Classic and Contemporary Works
    Preparing for Paper 1 and Paper 2 Exams
  • AP Language and Composition - Grade 12

    Grade 12
    1 credit
    Prerequisites: English 11 or English 11 Honors and teacher recommendation
    Additional Fee: Students in this course are expected to take the AP exam.  A fee applies to all students taking this exam.

    AP Language and Composition is a reading and writing-intensive course that focuses on the art of rhetoric. Students will learn to write logically and persuasively for a variety of purposes, read and analyze a broad and challenging range of nonfiction texts, and deepen their awareness of the writer’s purpose and how language works. Major projects include researching world leaders and their famous speeches, analyzing the patterns of an individual writers’ various works, and reading current opinion pieces and crafting logical responses to them. Students should be skilled at critical reading and writing, as the course requires daily close reading and responses. The course is an excellent introduction to required college composition courses for college freshmen. All students are expected to take the AP Language and Composition exam in the spring, in addition to completing a senior project.

    Units of Study
    Rhetorical Basics
    Argument
    Rhetorical Analysis
    Non-Fiction
    The Persuasive Speech
    Synthesis Writing
    The Senior Project

IB and AP Social Studies

List of 11 items.

  • AP United States History - Grade 10

    1 Credit
    Prerequisite: Western Civilization Honors (a B minimum) and teacher recommendation
    Additional Fee: Students enrolled in this course are expected to take the AP exam. A fee applies to all students taking this exam.

    Advanced Placement United States History is a thorough and rigorous survey course organized by basic themes and time periods in order to introduce students to key ideas, events, and people that influenced the course of our nation’s history. The course seeks to apprentice students to the practice of history by explicitly stressing the development of a specific set of historical thinking skills while learning about the past. The seven basic themes are identity, work, exchange and technology, peopling, politics and power, America in the world, environment and geography and ideas, beliefs and culture. The nine time periods encompass 1000 AD-Present. Historical thinking skills emphasized include chronological reasoning, historical causation, continuity and change over time, periodization, comparison and contextualization, historical argumentation using relevant historical evidence, and historical interpretation and synthesis. Student’s best develop these skills through exploration and interpretation of a rich array of primary and secondary sources and through the regular development of historical argumentation in writing. Skills based assessment activities also include simulations, audiovisual aids, group activities and field trips. As most students first Advanced Placement course, attention is also paid to the development of sound study skills reflecting the different ways to study for different types of assessment. Students who are seriously considering pursuit of the IB diploma and/or further advanced placement course study should take this course. Doing well in this course requires a passion for United States history, strong reading comprehension, organization, and analytical writing skills along with the ability to self-advocate and attend tutorial when needed. Some Saturday and extra evening sessions are required. A summer assignment is to be completed before the return to school in August.

    Units of Study
    1000-1607 -Native American Civilizations and the Age of Exploration
    1607-1754 -The Establishment of European Colonies
    1754-1800 -The American Revolution and Critical Period
    1800-1848- Expansion in an Age of Reform
    1840-1877- Civil War and Reconstruction
    1860-1900- Industrialization and Imperialism in the Gilded Age
    1900-1945- The United States Becomes a World Power
    1945-1980 -The War on Poverty, Counterculture, Containment and The Cold War
    1980-Present -Conservative Resurgence and the War on Terror
  • AP United States Government and Politics - Grade 11-12

    1 Credit
    Prerequisites: AP United States History (B- or higher) or United States History Honors (B+ or higher) or United States History (A or higher) and teacher recommendation
    Additional Fee: Students enrolled in this course are expected to take the AP exam. A fee applies to all students taking this exam.
    This course fulfills the United States Government graduation requirement.

    AP U.S. Government and Politics provides a college-level, nonpartisan introduction to key political concepts, ideas, institutions, policies, interactions, roles, and behaviors that characterize the constitutional system and political culture of the United States. Students will study U.S. foundational documents, Supreme Court decisions, and other texts and visuals to gain an understanding of the relationships and interactions among political institutions, processes, and behaviors. They will also engage in disciplinary practices that require them to read and interpret data, make comparisons and applications, and develop evidence-based arguments. In addition, they will complete a political science research or applied civics project.

    Units of Study
    Foundations of American Democracy
    Interactions Among Branches of Government
    Civil Liberties and Civil Rights
    American Political Ideologies and Beliefs
    Political Participation
  • IB History - Grade 11

    1 Credit
    Prerequisite:  AP United States History (B or higher) or United States History Honors (B+ or higher) or United States History (A or higher) and teacher recommendation
    Additional Fee:  IB examination fees will be incurred the second year of the course.

    This is year one of a two year IB Higher Level History sequence. As part of this course students will examine major trends in 20th Century European and World History. During the first year, the focus is on the causes and effects of World War I, the emergence of authoritarian states in Europe, domestic and international trends during the interwar years, the failure of collective security, the causes and impact of Italian, German, and Japanese expansion during the interwar years. Students will examine the role of broad trends as well as the role of individuals in history. In addition to analyzing historical documents, students will explore the historiography of the events we study. Students should expect to engage with assigned texts and think critically about historical events as part of active classroom participation. Students will also undertake a historical investigation as preparation for the Internal Assessment to be completed in year 2.

    Units of Study
    European Diplomacy 1871-1914
    World War I
    Creating a Post War Order: the Paris Peace Talks
    Germany: Creation of the Weimar Republic-The Golden Age of Stresemann
    Fascism in Italy: Mussolini Consolidates Power, Domestic Policies, Expansion
    From a Republic to Dictatorship: Germany and the Rise of Hitler
    International Response to Italian and German Expansion
    Japanese Expansion and International Response
     
  • IB History: Europe HL/US Government - Grade 12

    1 Credit
    Prerequisite:  Teacher recommendation based on the expectation of B or higher in IB History
    Additional Fee: Students enrolled in this course are expected to take the IB exam. A fee applies to all students taking this exam.
    This course fulfills the United States Government graduation requirement.

    This is the second year of a 2-year sequence. The content focus for year two is World War II, the Cold War, the end of the Cold War and the post Cold War world order. The aims of the course are to promote an understanding of history as a discipline, including the nature and diversity of its sources, methods and interpretations, to encourage an understanding of the present through critical reflection upon the past as well as an understanding of the impact of historical developments at national, regional and international levels and to develop an awareness of one’s own historical identity through the study of the historical experiences of different cultures. All students enrolled in IB History HL will also engage in a historical investigation designed to develop students' research and writing skills.

    In addition, students will gain an analytical perspective on government and politics in the United States during the course. This course includes both the study of general concepts used to interpret U.S. government and politics and the analysis of specific examples.

    Units of Study
    Foundations of US Government
    Move to Global War
    World War II: Front Lines and Homefront
    The Holocaust
    The Cold War: An Emerging Post-War Order
    China and the Cold War
    Behind the Iron Curtain: Soviet Foreign Policy from Stalin to Brezhnev
    Cold War Conflicts and Case Studies
    The Walls Come Tumbling Down: The End of the Cold War
  • IB Global Politics - Grade 11

    1 Credit
    Prerequisites:  AP United States History (B or higher) or United States History Honors (B+ or higher) or United States History (A or higher) and teacher recommendation
    Additional Fee:  IB examination fees will be incurred the second year of the course.

    This is the first year of the two year IB Global Politics HL course. The course explores fundamental political concepts such as power, liberty and equality, in a range of contexts and at a variety of levels. It allows students to develop an understanding of the local, national, international and global dimensions of political activity, as well as allowing them the opportunity to explore political issues affecting their own lives. The course helps students to understand abstract political concepts by grounding them in real world examples and case studies while preparing them for the IB Global Politics exam administered at the conclusion of their senior year. Developing international mindedness and an awareness of multiple perspectives is at the heart of this course. It encourages dialogue and debate, nurturing the capacity to interpret competing and contestable claims. Students will learn through critical readings, class discussions, analytical writing, engagement activities, independent research and student presentations. It is crucial for students to have an interest in current issues, consider and be respectful of multiple viewpoints, and to work independently.

    Units of Study
    Power, Sovereignty and International Relations
    Engagement Activity and Paper
    Human Rights
    Development
    Peace and Conflict
  • IB Global Politics HL / US Government - Grade 12

    1 Credit
    Prerequisite: Teacher recommendation based on the expectation of B or higher in IB Global Politics
    Additional Fee: Students in this course are expected to take the IB exam.  A fee applies to all students taking this exam.
    This course fulfills the United States Government graduation requirement.

    This is the second year of the two year sequence of Global Politics HL.  The course explores fundamental political concepts such as power, liberty and equality, in a range of contexts and at a variety of levels. It allows students to develop an understanding of the local, national, international and global dimensions of political activity, as well as allowing them the opportunity to explore political issues affecting their own lives. The course helps students to understand abstract political concepts by grounding them in real world examples and case studies while preparing them for the IB Global Politics exam administered at the conclusion of their senior year. Developing international mindedness and an awareness of multiple perspectives is at the heart of this course. It encourages dialogue and debate, nurturing the capacity to interpret competing and contestable claims. Students will learn through critical readings, class discussions, analytical writing, engagement activities, independent research and student presentations. It is crucial for students to have an interest in current issues, consider and be respectful of multiple viewpoints, and to work independently.

    In addition, students will gain an analytical perspective on government and politics in the United States during the course. This course includes both the study of general concepts used to interpret U.S. government and politics and the analysis of specific examples.

    Units of Study
    United States Government
    Independent Research and Higher Level Case Study Presentations
    Power, Sovereignty and International Relations
    Human Rights
    Development
    Peace and Conflict

     
  • IB Geography- Grade 11

    1 Credit
    Prerequisite: AP United States History (B- or higher) or United States History Honors (B+ or higher) or United States History (A or higher) and teacher recommendation
    Required tools:  Colored pencils
    Additional Fee:  IB examination fees will be incurred the second year of the course.

    This is the first year of the two year IB Geography HL course.  Geography is a dynamic subject that is firmly grounded in the real world and focuses on the interactions between individuals, societies and physical processes in both time and space. It seeks to identify trends and patterns in these interactions. It also investigates the way in which people adapt and respond to change, and evaluates actual and possible management strategies associated with such change. Geography describes and helps to explain the similarities and differences between different places. These may be defined on a variety of scales and from the perspectives of a different range of actors, with varying powers over decision-making processes.

    Within individuals and societies subjects, geography is distinctive in its spatial dimension and occupies a middle ground between social or human sciences and natural sciences. The Diploma Programme geography course integrates physical, environmental and human geography, and ensures that students acquire elements of both socio‑economic and scientific methodologies. Geography takes advantage of its position to examine relevant concepts and ideas from a wide variety of disciplines. This helps students develop life skills and have an appreciation of, and a respect for, alternative approaches, viewpoints and ideas.

    Units of Study
    Changing Population
    Global Climate - Vulnerability and Resistance
    Global Resource Consumption
    Freshwater - Drainage Basins
    Oceans and Coastal Margins
  • IB Geography HL/US Government - Grade 12

    1 Credit
    Prerequisite:  Teacher recommendation based on the expectation of B or higher in IB Geography
    Required tools:  Colored pencils
    Additional Fee: Students enrolled in this course are expected to take the IB exam. A fee applies to all students taking this exam.
    This course fulfills the United States Government graduation requirement.

    This is the second year of the two year IB Geography HL course.  Geography is a dynamic subject that is firmly grounded in the real world and focuses on the interactions between individuals, societies and physical processes in both time and space. It seeks to identify trends and patterns in these interactions. It also investigates the way in which people adapt and respond to change, and evaluates actual and possible management strategies associated with such change. Geography describes and helps to explain the similarities and differences between different places. These may be defined on a variety of scales and from the perspectives of a different range of actors, with varying powers over decision-making processes.

    Within individuals and societies subjects, geography is distinctive in its spatial dimension and occupies a middle ground between social or human sciences and natural sciences. The Diploma Programme geography course integrates physical, environmental and human geography, and ensures that students acquire elements of both socio‑economic and scientific methodologies. Geography takes advantage of its position to examine relevant concepts and ideas from a wide variety of disciplines. This helps students develop life skills and have an appreciation of, and a respect for, alternative approaches, viewpoints and ideas.

    In addition, students will gain an analytical perspective on government and politics in the United States during the course. This course includes both the study of general concepts used to interpret U.S. government and politics and the analysis of specific examples.

    Units of Study
    United States Government
    Urban Environments
    Power, Places, and Networks
    Human Development and Diversity
    Global Risks and Resilience
    Mapping
  • IB Environmental Systems & Societies SL - Grades 11-12

    1 Credit
    Prerequisite: Teacher recommendation based on expectations of B or higher in Chemistry Honors and Biology Honors or A in Chemistry and Biology or Chemistry 2, evidence of focus, reliability, work ethic, independent learning, and passion for the subject matter
    Required tools:  Graphing calculator. "Rite-in-the-Rain" Field Journal (purchased through the school)
    Additional Fees: Students in this course are expected to take the IB exam.  A fee applies to all students taking this exam.
    This course may count as a Group 3 and/or a Group 4 IB course for diploma candidates.  It will also satisfy either a Trinity science credit or a social studies credit, but not both.

    The intent of this course is to help students develop a holistic perspective on the environment using a systems approach together with scientific, economic, historical, cultural and socio-political methodologies. The course seeks to help students develop the skills to assess, measure and analyze the environment from a local to a global perspective. Topics include foundations of environmental systems and societies, ecosystems and ecology, biodiversity and conservation, water and aquatic food production systems and societies, soil systems and terrestrial food production systems and societies, atmospheric systems and societies, climate change and energy production and human systems and resource use.

    In the laboratory component of this course students will explore experimental methods, develop experimental design skills and apply these methods and skills to the study of ecosystems and societies. Laboratory work will be augmented with fieldwork both on the Trinity property and other locations. Students are expected to independently apply laboratory skills and report writing learned in previous science classes. Advanced skills will be developed throughout the course and students will complete an individual investigation that is assessed by the teacher and submitted to IBO. It represents 25% of the exam score. The investigation focuses on using the scientific method for a lab experience that includes: planning and conducting an experiment; processing, analyzing and graphing data collected from the experiment; discussing and making conclusions using collected data; and evaluating the experimental process itself.

    This course is for any student interested in environmental sciences, sustainability, or the outdoors in general. However, the goal of this course is to explain environmentalism through a variety of lenses, from economic, to religious, to recreational, so all curious students are welcome. It is a class that does involve some outdoor work, so students should be prepared to work safely in any weather.

    Units of Study
    Foundations of ESS
    Ecosystems and ecology
    Biodiversity and conservation
    Water, aquatic food production systems, and societies
    Soil systems, terrestrial food production systems and societies
    Atmospheric systems and societies
    Climate change and energy production
    Human systems and resource use
  • IB Economics - Grade 11

    1 Credit
    Prerequisite: AP United States History or United States History Honors and teacher recommendation
    Required tools:  TI-84 Plus Calculator or equivalent
    Additional Fee:  IB examination fees will be incurred the second year of the course

    This is the first part of a two year course designed to prepare students for the IB Economics HL exam. The course presents a college-level survey of both microeconomics and macroeconomics. The microeconomics section is designed to give a thorough review of the principles of economics that apply to the functions of individuals as decision-makers, both consumers and producers, within the economic system. It places primary emphasis on the nature and functions of product markets and includes the study of factor markets, theory of a firm and of the role of government in promoting greater equity in the economy. The macroeconomics section gives students an understanding of the principles of economics that apply to an economic system as a whole.

    The course reviews the study of national income and price-level determination and develops students’ familiarity with economic performance measures, the financial sector, stabilization policies and economic growth. Emphasis is placed on the different types of fiscal and monetary policy that governments may pursue with historiographical coverage of major economic schools of thought. In addition to the principles of microeconomics and macroeconomics, IB Economics students will also delve extensively into international economics including international trade theory and growth, economic development, exchange rates, economic integration and balance of payments. Students will learn how the mixed economies of other countries that have more government involvement operate. Another goal is for students to understand the problems faced by developing countries and to develop an awareness of possible solutions. A variety of real world examples will be used to illustrate and explain these principles and a culminating project in the second year is a case study in how a specific developing country should pursue economic development.

    IB Economics also entails a significant quantitative component as students learn how to derive and graph supply and demand functions, compute consumer and producer surplus, evaluate the effects of taxes and subsidies, adjust economic data for inflation, evaluate the effects of macroeconomic policy by using a variety of multipliers, and study and use marginal cost theory. Students learn this material through lecture, class discussion, oral presentations, article analysis, group projects, essay portfolio development, graphing, and case studies. Document analysis and basic research skills are a must and higher order thinking skill use is mandatory as essay writing involving graphing, analysis, synthesis, evaluation, and historical and economic argumentation skills are paramount. Students that want to understand why national economies and markets boom and bust, understand personal investment strategies for their future, understand the process of globalization, understand government’s role in the economy, and why individual firms succeed or fail, merge or do not merge, should take this course. To do well students must complete all work on time as skill sets and theory combine to form building blocks on which future understanding rests, be strong advocates and attend tutorial as needed for difficult concepts, possess strong reading comprehension skills, and have a strong math background through Algebra II/Trigonometry.

    Units of Study
    How to Think Like an Economist
    Basic Supply and Demand Theory
    Elasticity, Taxes, Subsidies and Market Failure
    Linear Demand and Supply Functions-Quantitative Analysis
    Aggregate Demand, Aggregate Supply, Inflation, and Unemployment
    Keynesian, Classical and Neo-Classical Fiscal and Monetary Policy
    Quantitative Macroeconomic Analysis: Fiscal and Monetary Multipliers
     
  • IB Economics HL - Grade 12

    1 Credit
    Prerequisite:Teacher recommendation based on the expectation of B or higher in IB Economics
    Additional Fee: Students enrolled in this course are expected to take the IB exam. A fee applies to all students taking this exam.

    This is the second part of a two year course designed to prepare students for the IB Economics HL exam. The course presents a college-level survey of both microeconomics and macroeconomics. The microeconomics section is designed to give a thorough review of the principles of economics that apply to the functions of individuals as decision-makers, both consumers and producers, within the economic system. It places primary emphasis on the nature and functions of product markets and includes the study of factor markets, theory of a firm including cost, revenue and profit theory, and of the role of government in promoting greater equity in the economy. The macroeconomics section gives students an understanding of the principles of economics that apply to an economic system as a whole.

    The course reviews the study of national income and price-level determination and develops students’ familiarity with economic performance measures, the financial sector, stabilization policies and economic growth. Emphasis is placed on the different types of fiscal and monetary policy that governments may pursue which includes a quantitative understanding of multipliers and with historiographical coverage of major economic schools of thought. In addition to the principles of microeconomics and macroeconomics, IB Economics students will also delve extensively into international economics including international trade theory and growth, economic development, exchange rates, economic integration, terms of trade, globalization history and balance of payments. Students will learn how the mixed economies of other countries that have more government involvement operate. Another goal is for students to understand the problems faced by developing countries and to develop an awareness of possible solutions. An end of year case study of a developing country and a plan for proper development is the culmination of the course. A variety of real world examples will be used to illustrate and explain these principles.

    IB Economics also entails a significant quantitative component as students learn how to derive and graph linear supply and demand functions, compute consumer and producer surplus, evaluate the effects of taxes and subsidies, adjust economic data for inflation, evaluate the effects of macroeconomic policy by using a variety of multipliers, and study and use marginal cost theory. Students learn this material through lecture, class discussion, oral presentations, article analysis, group projects, essay portfolio development, graphing, and case studies. Document analysis and basic research skills are a must and higher order thinking skill use is mandatory as essay writing involving graphing, analysis, synthesis, evaluation, and historical and economic argumentation skills are paramount. Students that want to understand why national economies and markets boom and bust, understand personal investment strategies for their future, understand the process of globalization, understand government’s role in the economy, and why individual firms succeed or fail, merge or do not merge, should take this course. To do well students must complete all work on time as skill sets and theory combine to form building blocks on which future understanding rests, be strong advocates and attend tutorial as needed for difficult concepts, possess strong reading comprehension skills, and have a strong math background through Algebra II/Trigonometry. A summer assignment is completed before the return to school in August.

    Units of Study
    Review of Microeconomic Theory of IB Economics
    Theory of a Firm
    Quantitative Analysis-Theory of a Firm
    Review of Macroeconomic Theory of IB Economics
    International Trade, Protectionism, Exchange Rate Systems, Terms of Trade and Balance of Payments
    Quantitative Analysis of Protectionism, Exchange Rates, Terms of Trade and Balance of Payments
    Economic Development and History of Globalization

IB and AP Math

List of 4 items.

  • IB Mathematical Studies SL - Grades 11-12

    1 Credit
    Prerequisites: Juniors or Seniors who are full IB diploma candidates and have completed an Algebra 2/Trigonometry or higher math course and teacher recommendation
    Required Tools:  TI-84 Plus or TI-85 Series calculator
    Additional Fee: Students in this course are expected to take the IB exam.  A fee applies to all students taking this exam.
    This course will be discontinued after 2019-2020.

    Mathematical Studies caters to students with varied backgrounds and abilities in the IB diploma program. It offers students opportunities to learn important concepts and techniques and to gain an understanding of a wide variety of mathematical topics. The nature of mathematical studies is such that it concentrates on mathematics that can be applied to contexts related, as far as possible, to other curriculum subjects and to common general occurrences. There is an emphasis on developing students’ mathematical reasoning, enhancing critical thinking, solving mathematical problems embedded in a wide range of contexts, and using the calculator effectively. A requirement within this course is the project: a written piece of work based on personal research involving the collection, analysis and evaluation of data. This course prepares the student for the required Standard Level IB examination in Mathematical Studies. Students most likely to select this subject are the ones whose main interests lie outside the field of mathematics.

    Units of Study
    Numbers and Algebra
    Descriptive Statistics
    Logic, sets and probability
    Statistical applications
    Geometry and trigonometry
    Mathematical models
    Introduction to Differential Calculus
  • IB Mathematics SL/AP Calculus AB - Grades 11-12

    1 Credit
    Prerequisite: Teacher recommendation based on the expectation of B+ or higher in Pre-Calculus Honors or IB Mathematics/Pre-Calculus Honors. An ability to understand abstract mathematical concepts and a strong work ethic are necessary to be a student in these courses.
    Required Tools: TI-84 Plus Series calculator
    Additional Fee: Students in this course are expected to take the AP and/or the IB exams. A fee applies to all students taking these exams.

    The course closely follows the recommendations of the Committee on Mathematics of the Advanced Placement Program (AB syllabus) as well as covering topics inherent to the IB Mathematics program. This course is designed to help students develop a conceptual understanding of college–level calculus content, as well as proficiency in the skills and practices needed for mathematical reasoning and problem solving.  Skills developed in this class are reasoning with definitions and theorems, connecting concepts, implementing algebraic/computational processes, connecting multiple representations, building notational fluency, and communicating. The pace is rapid and students are expected to read sections of the book when they need additional explanation. Students must be committed to daily work, both in and out of class. The course will have many "no calculator" units. The distinction between this course and Standard level Calculus is the pacing and depth at which the content is covered.

    Units of Study
    Limits
    Derivatives
    Implicit Differentiation and Related Rates
    Application of differentiation/curve sketching/optimization
    Integration and accumulation, Fundamental Theorem of Calculus
    Transcendental Functions – derivatives and integrals
    Differential equations/slope fields
    Area/volume of revolution – Application of Integration
  • IB Mathematics SL/AP Calculus BC - Grade 12

    1 Credit
    Prerequisites: Teacher recommendation based on the expectation of B or higher in IB Mathematics SL/AP Calculus AB, and a B+ or better in Pre-Calculus Honors
    Required Tools: TI-84 Plus Series calculator
    Additional Fee: Students in this course are expected to take the AP and/or the IB exams. A fee applies to all students taking these exams.

    This course is designed to prepare the student for taking the IB Mathematics SL and AP Calculus BC exams in the spring. Students will be exposed to previous IB an AP exam problems. Students who plan to take the IB Mathematics SL exam must also complete a mathematical exploration, which is a piece of written work that investigates an area of mathematics of their choice.  The pace is rapid and students are expected to read sections of the book when they need additional explanation.

    Units of Study
    Differential Calculus
    Integration
    Differential Equations
    Series Convergence
    Polar and Parametric Coordinates
    Functions, Equations and Binomial Expansion
    Circular Functions and Trigonometry
    Statistics and Probability
    Vectors
  • AP Statistics - Grades 10-12

    1 Credit
    Prerequisites: Teacher recommendation
    Required Tools: TI-84 Plus Series calculator
    Additional Fee: Students in this course are expected to take the AP exam.  A fee applies to all students taking this exam.

    This course closely follows the recommendations of the Committee on Statistics of the Advanced Placement Program. While the class is in the mathematics department, 99% of computation is done on the calculator. The class emphasizes discussion of these calculations and the meaning of the numbers. Most learning is done through traditional lectures with practice problem homework assignments. Activities and experiments are done for demonstration of concepts where appropriate and time permitting.  A successful student will have strong reading comprehension and good number sense.

    Units of Study
    Displaying Data
    Modeling Distributions
    Least Squares Regression
    Designing Studies
    Probability
    Random Variables
    Sampling Distributions
    One Sample Confidence Intervals
    One Sample Hypothesis Tests
    Comparing Two Populations or Groups
    Chi-Squared Tests
    Regression Inference and Transformations

IB and AP Science

List of 7 items.

  • IB Environmental Systems & Societies SL - Grades 11-12

    1 Credit
    Prerequisite: Teacher recommendation based on expectations of B or higher in Chemistry Honors and Biology Honors or A in Chemistry and Biology or Chemistry 2, evidence of focus, reliability, work ethic, independent learning, and passion for the subject matter
    Required tools:  Graphing calculator. "Rite-in-the-Rain" Field Journal (purchased through the school)
    Additional Fees: Students in this course are expected to take the IB exam.  A fee applies to all students taking this exam.

    This course may count as a Group 3 and/or a Group 4 IB course for diploma candidates.  It will also satisfy either a Trinity science credit or a social studies credit, but not both.

    The intent of this course is to help students develop a holistic perspective on the environment using a systems approach together with scientific, economic, historical, cultural and socio-political methodologies. The course seeks to help students develop the skills to assess, measure and analyze the environment from a local to a global perspective. Topics include foundations of environmental systems and societies, ecosystems and ecology, biodiversity and conservation, water and aquatic food production systems and societies, soil systems and terrestrial food production systems and societies, atmospheric systems and societies, climate change and energy production and human systems and resource use.

    In the laboratory component of this course students will explore experimental methods, develop experimental design skills and apply these methods and skills to the study of ecosystems and societies. Laboratory work will be augmented with fieldwork both on the Trinity property and other locations. Students are expected to independently apply laboratory skills and report writing learned in previous science classes. Advanced skills will be developed throughout the course and students will complete an individual investigation that is assessed by the teacher and submitted to IBO. It represents 25% of the exam score. The investigation focuses on using the scientific method for a lab experience that includes: planning and conducting an experiment; processing, analyzing and graphing data collected from the experiment; discussing and making conclusions using collected data; and evaluating the experimental process itself.

    This course is for any student interested in environmental sciences, sustainability, or the outdoors in general. However, the goal of this course is to explain environmentalism through a variety of lenses, from economic, to religious, to recreational, so all curious students are welcome. It is a class that does involve some outdoor work, so students should be prepared to work safely in any weather.

    Units of Study
    Foundations of ESS
    Ecosystems and ecology
    Biodiversity and conservation
    Water, aquatic food production systems, and societies
    Soil systems, terrestrial food production systems and societies
    Atmospheric systems and societies
    Climate change and energy production
    Human systems and resource use
     
  • IB Biology SL - Grades 11-12

    1 Credit
    Prerequisite:  Teacher recommendation based on expectations of B or higher in Chemistry Honors and Biology Honors or A in Chemistry and Biology or Chemistry 2, evidence of focus, reliability, work ethic and independent learning
    Required tools:  TI graphing calculator recommended; students must have a calculator for the IB exam though it does not have to be a TI.
    Additional Fee: Students in this course are expected to take the IB exam.  A fee applies to all students taking this exam. Please see the information in the Overview section about IB exams.

    Biology is the study of life. Biologists investigate the living world at all levels from the microscopic to macroscopic, using a variety of approaches and techniques. At one end of the scale is the cell, its molecular construction and complex metabolic reactions. At the other end of the scale biologists investigate ecosystem level interactions in the biosphere. This course follows the core IB Standard Level curriculum. Students who are interested in topics in biology, ecology, medicine, and health will benefit from the course. Students should be able to focus on challenging concepts, have a strong work ethic, and be both independent and collaborative learners. They will demonstrate their knowledge through a variety of means, apply that knowledge to modern problems, and engage in scientific investigations designed to develop their analysis, research and evaluation skills. Students will spend at least 95 hours with the core curriculum and an additional 15 in an option area, as well as 40 hours engaged in labs, activities and the Group 4 project. Students are expected to independently apply laboratory skills and report writing learned in previous science classes. Advanced skills will be developed throughout the course. Written laboratory work is assessed by the teacher, and a sample is submitted to the IBO, representing 20% of the exam score.

    Units of Study
    Cell Biology
    Molecular Biology (macromolecules, central dogma, matter and energy processes)
    Genetics
    Ecology
    Evolution and Biodiversity
    Human Physiology
  • IB Biology HL - Grade 12

    1 Credit
    Prerequisite:  Teacher recommendation based on the expectation of B or higher in IB Biology SL
    Additional Fee: Students in this course are expected to take the IB exam.  A fee applies to all students taking this exam.

    This course builds upon what was learned previously in IB Biology SL. Students both re-engage with previous Biology topics as well as enhance their understanding with the addition of new ones in each unit. The additional option we will study is ecology and conservation. Students will demonstrate their learning through group work, labs, hands on activities, and research projects. In order to succeed in this course, students must be curious, knowledgeable, precise, determined, creative, and self-motivating. Skills in critical analysis, observation, research, and writing are all emphasized.   Those interested in majors/jobs in biochemistry, molecular biology, genetics, chemistry, psychology, nursing/medical school, engineering, agriculture, ecology, etc. should consider taking this course. This course prepares students for the IB Biology HL examination.

    Units of Study
    Plant Biology
    Nucleic Acids
    Metabolism, Respiration, and Photosynthesis
    Genetics and Evolution
    Animal Physiology
    Ecology and Conservation
     
  • IB Chemistry SL - Grades 11-12

    1 Credit
    Prerequisite: Teacher recommendation based on expectations of B+ or higher in Chemistry Honors and Biology Honors or A in Chemistry and Biology or Chemistry 2, evidence of focus, reliability, work ethic and independent learning
    Required tools:  TI-84 Plus Calculator
    Additional fees: Students in this course are expected to take the IB exam.  A fee applies to all students taking this exam. Please see the information in the Overview section about IB exams.

    This course studies the natural world and how it works by examining the composition and properties of matter, as well as the changes that it undergoes. Students learn concepts and practical application through reading, lecture, group work, modeling, problem-solving and lab activities. Skills in critical analysis, observation, research, and writing are all emphasized. This course takes a rigorous approach to academic study and investigational laboratory skills, emphasizing experimental design and documentation. It also covers laboratory techniques, error identification and statistical analysis. All students conduct research for the IB Group 4 science project as well as an Independent Assessment. This course is a year-long course for junior or senior students. Those who are considering careers in science, engineering, or health care should strongly consider taking this course. It is crucial for students to be inquisitive and self-motivated. The student’s ability to think abstractly and work independently are also key.  This course prepares students for the IB Chemistry Standard Level Examination.

    Units of Study
    Stoichiometric Relationships
    Organic Chemistry
    Atomic Structure
    Periodicity
    Chemical Bonding and Structure
    Measurement and Data Processing
    Energetics/Thermochemistry
    Chemical Kinetics
    Equilibrium
    Acids and Bases
    Redox Processes
    Medicinal Chemistry
     
  • IB Chemistry HL - Grade 12

    1 Credit
    Prerequisite: Teacher recommendation based on the expectation of B or higher in IB Chemistry SL
    Required tools:  TI-84 Plus Calculator
    Additional fees: Students in this course are expected to take the IB exam.  A fee applies to all students taking this exam.

    IB Chemistry HL covers a review of the material covered in IB Chemistry SL as well as the additional material specified for IB Chemistry HL. This course provides a deeper approach to chemical principles, including the required mathematical analysis. Students must be able to retain material mastered in Chemistry SL as well as the work in the HL course, and apply it throughout the entire field of study. Laboratory work is an extensive part of the course with an emphasis on experimental design and report writing. A scientific paper on the student’s self-designed experiment and a cumulative test will take the place of a first semester exam. Students who complete this course will be prepared to take the IB Chemistry Higher Level examination. Portions of this course will be self-taught outside the classroom.

    Students in this course are expected to act with integrity and honesty, and take responsibility for their own actions. They should exercise initiative in applying thinking skills critically and creatively to recognize and approach complex problems, and make reasoned, ethical decisions. They should understand and apply scientific facts and concepts, scientific methods and techniques, scientific terminology, and methods of presenting scientific information. They should be able to construct, analyze, and evaluate hypotheses, research questions and predictions, scientific methods and techniques, and scientific explanations. They are independent learners, can read with understanding, and can write scientific reports competently.

    Units of Study
    Stoichiometric Relationships
    Atomic Structure
    Periodicity
    Chemical Bonding and Structure
    Energetics/Thermochemistry
    Organic Chemistry
    Measurement, Data Processing, and Analysis
    Chemical Kinetics
    Equilibrium
    Acids and Bases
    Redox Processes
    Medicinal Chemistry
     
  • IB Physics SL - Grades 11-12

    1 Credit
    Prerequisites: Teacher recommendation based on expectations of B+ or higher in Chemistry Honors and Biology Honors or A in Chemistry and Biology or Chemistry 2, evidence of focus, reliability, work ethic and independent learning.  In addition, the mathematics prerequisite is B+ or higher in Algebra 2 Honors or A or higher in Algebra 2.
    Required tools:  TI-84 Plus Calculator
    Additional fees: Students in this course are expected to take the IB exam.  A fee applies to all students taking this exam. Please see the information in the Overview section about IB exams.

    The study of Physics seeks to explain the universe itself, from the smallest particles to the vast distances between galaxies. Physics helps us understand the world around us. Throughout this course students are expected to demonstrate knowledge and understanding of topics by applied methods and techniques discussed in class, through lab activities, demonstrations and simulations. Through the yearlong course students are prompted to formulate, analyze and evaluate topics discussed in class and labs both qualitatively and quantitatively.

    Success will come to students who demonstrate knowledge and understanding, apply facts and concepts, formulate, analyze and evaluate scientific explanations. Milestones of the course include the individual assessment (IA) and Group 4 project. These activities will demonstrate the students’ insightful investigative skills.

    This class prepares students for the IB Physics SL exams (Papers 1, 2 and 3). Those who are considering careers in STEM based fields should strongly consider taking this course. This course can also help prepare students for IB Physics HL.

    Units of Study
    Measurement and Uncertainty
    Mechanics
    Thermal Physics
    Oscillations and Waves
    Electricity and Magnetism
    Circular Motion and Gravitation
    Atomic, Nuclear and Particle Physics
    Energy Production
    Astrophysics (IB Option)
  • IB Physics HL - Grade 12

    1 Credit
    Prerequisite:  Teacher recommendation based on the expectation of B or higher in IB Physics SL  
    Required tools:  TI-84 Plus Calculator
    Additional fees: Students in this course are expected to take the IB exam.  A fee applies to all students taking this exam.

    This course uses college level texts and laboratory experiences and includes a detailed approach to the principles of physics. The course amplifies the material taught in the first year of the course with a greater emphasis on problem solving skills involving more advanced mathematical methods. Students will learn through independent research, hands-on laboratory investigations, demonstrations, and collaborative work within the class. Students should be able to think critically and work independently. This course prepares students not only for the IB Physics HL Examination, but also for advanced physical scientific study at the college level. While reviewing the standard level material and learning the additional higher level topics, students will gain an understanding and appreciation for the scientific advances that have contributed to the development of society as we know it. Students should expect a rigorous curriculum. Healthy study habits and time management skills are a necessity for success in this course. Those who are interested in careers in science and engineering should consider taking this course.

    Units of Study
    Measurements and uncertainties
    Mechanics
    Wave phenomena
    Fields
    Electricity and magnetism
    Energy
    Modern Physics
    Imaging

IB Music

List of 2 items.

  • IB Music - Grade 11

    1 Credit
    Prerequisites:  Satisfactory score on a music skills placement test and teacher permission
    Required Tools:  Instrumentalists must have their own instrument at home with the exception of percussionists, who should have the core instruments (snare and bells) at home but can use the school's percussion inventory to diversify their recital program.
    Additional Fee:  Though not a school fee, private music lessons on a student's primary instrument or voice must be taken through the senior year recital in late March. IB examination fees will be incurred the second year of the course.
    This is the first year of a two-year course that explores comprehensive musicianship: music theory, music history, knowledge of music from various cultures around the world, performance and compositional practices. This course prepares students for the IB Music Examination.

    Students learn by frequent critical listening and analysis of works drawn from Western Art ("Classical"), World and Popular musics. Student musicians perform regularly in front of their peers and the instructor to gain experience and receive feedback. Composing is undertaken in conjunction with applicable music theory areas, starting with short exercises and building to writing full sections by year's end.

    This course is a year-long elective for juniors. Students who would like to develop their musical skills to a high level, especially those who are considering a career in any music-related field should take this course. Key skills are the ability to listen critically and express findings from analysis (both in class discussion and in writing) and to work both independently and in collaboration with peers. It is important that students approach all studied music with an open mind and to seek to understand both the emotional and intellectual aspects that are present in all well-crafted musical works.

    Students must take private instruction with a qualified instructor on her/his instrument or voice through the senior year recital in late March. Interested students should contact the instructor to arrange for an inventory of musical concepts no later than the end of their freshman year.

    Units of Study
    The Elements of Music: Melody, Rhythm, Harmony, Texture, Dynamics, Articulation, Timbre
    Musical Organization: Structure and Forms
    Theory: Key Signatures, Scales, Intervals, Triads, Dominant and Diminished 7th Chords
    Renaissance Vocal Music
    Renaissance Instrumental Music
    The Analysis Process: Structure, Elements, Terminology, Context
    Baroque Vocal Music
    Baroque Instrumental Music
    Classical Form: The Sonata Cycle
    Classical Chamber Music
    Classical Symphony: Symphony No. 94 by Haydn (Prescribed Work #1)
    World Music: Indonesia, the Andes, North America, Africa, the Middle East
    Performance Presentations 1 and 2
    Composition: Voice-leading and Redistribution, Functional Chord Progressions, Melody Construction, Melody-Harmony Agreement, Accompaniment Writing, Tonicization/Modulation, Sectional Coherence
  • IB Music HL/SL - Grade 12

    1 Credit
    Prerequisite:  Teacher recommendation based on the expectation of B or higher in IB Music
    Required Tools:  Instrumentalists must have their own instrument at home with the exception of percussionists, who should have the core instruments (snare and bells) at home but can use the school's percussion inventory to diversify their recital program.
    Additional Fee:  Though not a school fee, private music lessons on a student's primary instrument or voice must be taken through the senior year recital in late March. Students in this course are expected to take the IB exam. A fee applies to all students taking this exam.
    This is the final year of a two-year course that explores comprehensive musicianship: music theory, music history, knowledge of music from various cultures around the world, performance and compositional practices. This course prepares students for the IB Music Examination.(both HL and SL)  The teacher and student will determine examination level based on personal strength, interests, and needs of the student.

    Students learn by frequent critical listening and analysis of works drawn from Western Art ("Classical"), World and Popular musics. Student musicians perform regularly in front of their peers and the instructor to gain experience and receive feedback. Composing is undertaken in conjunction with applicable music theory areas, starting with short exercises and building to writing full works by the IB submission dates in early April.

    Students registered at the Higher Level will perform a 20-minute recital AND submit a composition portfolio of 3 works. Students registered at the Standard Level will EITHER perform a 15-minute recital OR submit a composition portfolio of 2 works. All students undertake an independent research project, the Musical Links Investigation, as well as take the IB Music exam.

    This course is a year-long elective for seniors. Students who would like to develop their musical skills to a very high level, especially those who are considering a career in any music-related field should take this course. Key skills are the ability to listen critically and express findings from analysis (both in class discussion and in writing) and to work both independently and in collaboration with peers. It is important that students approach all studied music with an open mind and to seek to understand both the emotional and intellectual aspects that are present in all well-crafted musical works. Additionally, looking forward to the assignment timeline and employing time-management skills are especially valuable in the project-heavy time period of February-April.

    Students must take private instruction with a qualified instructor on her/his instrument or voice through the senior year recital in late March.

    Units of Study
    Classical Opera
    Theory: 7th Chords Other than Dominant/Diminished, Extended Chords (9ths, 11ths, 13ths), Chord Clusters, Quartal/Quintal Chords, 12-Tone System, Altered Note Chords
    Romantic Chamber Music
    Romantic Larger Forms: Rachmaninoff "Rhapsody on a Theme by Paganini"(Prescribed work #2)
    Romantic Opera
    Impressionistic Music
    Modern Era Instrumental Music: Chamber and Larger Forms
    Modern Era Vocal Music
    Jazz
    Electronic and Mixed Media Music
    Minimalistic Music
    World Music: India, the Far East, Eastern Europe, the British Isles, Brazil/Argentina, the Caribbean
    Cultural Comparisons: The Musical Links Investigation (Independent Research Project)
    In-class Performances 3-5 (Recital Preparation)
    Composition: Art-Song Accompaniment (Stylistic Study 1), Romantic Writing Concepts, Planing, Impressionistic Writing, 12-Tone Writing (Stylistic Study 2), Polytonal Writing, Jazz and Popular Song Writing

IB Visual Arts

List of 6 items.

  • IB Visual Arts - 2D - Grade 11

    1 Credit
    Prerequisites:  IB Visual Arts - 2D is open to Juniors who have fulfilled all required pre-IB art electives, who have demonstrated maturity, commitment and dedication to visual arts, and who have written an essay of intent and have the permission of the teacher. Pre-IB art electives for 2D include: Elements of Drawing and Painting, Advanced Drawing and Painting, and Design Fundamentals.  
    Additional Fee:  IB examination fees will be incurred the second year of the course.

    This IB Visual Arts course is the first year of a two-year program for diploma or course candidates. This course is designed for the visual arts student with creative and imaginative abilities who may pursue the visual arts at a university or college. The visual arts program consists of several linked compulsory parts, studio work, a process portfolio, an artist comparative study, and a final exhibition. The studio work is a practical exploration and artistic production. The process portfolio is a slide presentation demonstrating exploration in at least three different art making forms. It contains visual and written information: illustrating process, investigation, communication of ideas and reflection. The comparative study engages students in the practice of critical investigation of two artists from different cultural backgrounds, different time periods, and different mediums. The exhibition includes examples of resolved work that show evidence of technical accomplishment and experimentation, which includes a curatorial rationale explaining presentation, innovations, and overall impact.

    Units of Study
    Process Portfolio: Research, Document, and Explore Creative Processes Through Various Mediums and Slide Presentations
    Exhibition Texts: Learning to Write Succinct Text That Speaks to Intent , Influence, Formal Choice and Emotive Outcome
    Group Critique: Ordering The Qualities of the Work: Medium, Intent, Technique and Composition
    Comparative Study #1: A Thematic Study of Two Different Artists and Three of Their Works
    Winter Art Show: Collaborative Display- Setting up, Arranging and Taking Down Work in a Large Group/Public Setting
    Alternative Process Pages: Creation of Slides and Studio Work With Mediums Outside of Painting, Drawing or Printmaking
    Comparative Study #2 Compare and Contrast The Previously Identified Artists and Their Works
    Spring Show: Exploring Further Processes- Planning, Implementing and Resolving A Body Of Work
    Exhibition Text For Spring Show Work
    Comparative Study #3 Further expanding upon the CS Artists and Their Work
  • IB Visual Arts HL - 2D - Grade 12

    1 Credit
    Prerequisite: Teacher recommendation based on the expectation of B or higher in IB Visual Arts - 2D
    Additional Fee:  Students in this course are expected to take the IB exam. A fee applies to all students taking this exam.
     
    This IB Visual Arts course is the second year of a two-year program for diploma or course candidates. This course is designed for the visual arts student with creative and imaginative abilities who may pursue the visual arts at a university or college. The visual arts program consists of several linked compulsory parts, studio work, a process portfolio, an artist comparative study, and a final exhibition. The studio work is a practical exploration and artistic production.The process portfolio is a slide presentation demonstrating the exploration in at least three different art making forms. It contains visual and written information: illustrating process, investigation, communication of ideas and reflection. The comparative study engages students in the critical investigation of two artist from different cultural backgrounds, different time periods, and different mediums. The exhibition includes examples of resolved work that show evidence of technical accomplishment, which includes a curatorial rationale explaining presentation, innovations, and overall impact.

    Units of Study
    Process Portfolio
    Exhibition Texts
    Group Critique
    Comparative Study #1: A Final Thematic Study of Two Different Artists and Three of Their Works
    Winter Art Show: Collaborative Display
    Final Process Pages
    Final Comparative Study
    Final Exhibition
    Curatorial Rationale
    Three Visual Arts Exam Components
    Spring Trinity Fine Arts Festival: Final Group Show
  • IB Visual Arts - 3D - Grade 11

    1 Credit
    Prerequisites: IB Visual Arts - 3D is open to Juniors who have fulfilled all required pre-IB art electives, who have demonstrated maturity, commitment and dedication to visual arts, and who have written an essay of intent and have the permission of the teacher. Pre-IB art electives for 3D include:  Elements of Ceramics, Advanced Ceramics, and Design Fundamentals.
    Additional Fee:  IB examination fees will be incurred the second year of the course.
     
    This IB Visual Arts course is the first year of a two-year program for diploma or course candidates.  This course is designed for the visual arts student with creative and imaginative abilities who may pursue the visual arts at a university or college. The visual arts program consists of several linked compulsory parts, studio work, a process portfolio, an artist comparative study, and a final exhibition. The studio work is a practical exploration and artistic production.The process portfolio is a slide presentation demonstrating the exploration in at least different art making forms. It contains visual and written information, illustrating process, investigation, communication of ideas and reflection. The comparative study engages students in the critical investigation of two artist from different cultural backgrounds, different time periods, and different mediums. The exhibition includes examples of resolved work that show evidence of technical accomplishment which includes a curatorial rationale explaining presentation, innovations, and overall impact.

    Units of Study
    Understanding the Comparative Study
    Understanding the Process Portfolio
    Resolved Work
    Exhibition
  • IB Visual Arts HL - 3D - Grade 12

    1 Credit
    Prerequisite: Teacher recommendation based on the expectation of B or higher in IB Visual Arts - 3D Additional Fee:  Students in this course are expected to take the IB exam. A fee applies to all students taking this exam.
     
    This IB Visual Arts course is the second year of a two-year program for diploma or course candidates. This course is designed for the visual arts student with creative and imaginative abilities who may pursue the visual arts at a university or college. The visual arts program consists of several linked compulsory parts, studio work, a process portfolio, an artist comparative study, and a final exhibition. The studio work is a practical exploration and artistic production.The process portfolio is a slide presentation demonstrating the exploration in at least different art making forms. It contains visual and written information, illustrating process, investigation, communication of ideas and reflection. The comparative study engages students in the critical investigation of two artist from different cultural backgrounds, different time periods, and different mediums. The exhibition includes examples of resolved work that show evidence of technical accomplishment which includes a curatorial rationale explaining presentation, innovations, and overall impact.

    Units of Study
    Comparative Study
    Process Portfolio
    Resolved Work
    Exhibition
  • IB Visual Arts - Photography - Grade 11

    1 Credit
    Prerequisites: IB Visual Arts - Photography is open to Juniors who have fulfilled all required pre-IB art electives, who have demonstrated maturity, commitment and dedication to visual arts, and who have written an essay of intent and have the permission of the instructor.  Pre-IB art electives for photography include: Elements of Photography, Advanced Digital Photography, and Design Fundamentals.
    Required Tools:  In addition to using their cameras from Advanced Digital Photography, students will need a 35mm film camera. The cost to purchase one of these cameras is around $100. Options for film cameras will be discussed at the start of the class. If either of these camera requirements presents an obstacle for enrolling in the class, accommodations may be available. For additional information, speak to Mrs. Minehart.
    Additional Fee:  IB examination fees will be incurred the second year of the course.
     
    This IB Visual Arts course is the first year of a two-year program for diploma or course candidates. The visual arts program consists of several linked compulsory parts, studio work, a process portfolio, an artist comparative study, and a final exhibition. The studio work is a practical exploration and artistic production.The process portfolio is a slide presentation demonstrating the exploration in at least different art making forms. It contains visual and written information, illustrating process, investigation, communication of ideas and reflection. The comparative study engages students in the critical investigation of two artists from different cultural backgrounds, different time periods, and different mediums. The exhibition includes examples of resolved work that show evidence of technical accomplishment which includes a curatorial rationale explaining presentation, innovations, and overall impact.  This course is designed for the visual arts student with creative and imaginative abilities who may pursue the visual arts at a university or college.

    Units of Study
    Process Portfolio
    Comparative Study
    Exhibition
  • IB Visual Arts HL - Photography - Grade 12

    1 Credit
    Prerequisite: Teacher recommendation based on the expectation of B or higher in IB Visual Arts - Photography
    Required Tools:  The digital camera and 35mm film cameras from previous photography courses will be used again in this class.
    Additional Fee:  Students in this course are expected to take the IB exam. A fee applies to all students taking this exam.

    This IB Visual Arts course is the second year of a two-year program for diploma or course candidates. The visual arts program consists of several linked compulsory parts, studio work, a process portfolio, an artist comparative study, and a final exhibition. The studio work is a practical exploration and artistic production. The process portfolio is a slide presentation demonstrating the exploration in at least different art making forms. It contains visual and written information, illustrating process, investigation, communication of ideas and reflection. The comparative study engages students in the critical investigation of two artist from different cultural backgrounds, different time periods, and different mediums. The exhibition includes examples of resolved work that show evidence of technical accomplishment which includes a curatorial rationale explaining presentation, innovations, and overall impact.  This course is designed for the visual arts student with creative and imaginative abilities who may pursue the visual arts at a university or college.

    Units of Study
    Comparative Study
    Exhibition

IB Non-Departmental

List of 8 items.

  • IB CAS 1 - Grade 11

    Prerequisite:  Permission of IB DP Coordinator
    Additional Fee:  IB fees will be incurred the second year of the CAS experience.  
    This is an ungraded after school opportunity for students desiring to enrich their extracurricular life.  Completion of IB CAS 2 is required for a student to be recognized as an IB CAS candidate on their Trinity transcript.

    This course is the first year of a two year commitment. CAS aims to develop students who are: 1) reflective thinkers- they understand their own strengths and limitations, identify goals and devise strategies for personal growth, 2) willing to accept new challenges and new roles, 3) aware of themselves as members of communities with responsibilities towards each other and the environment, 4) active participants in sustained, collaborative projects, and 5) balanced- they enjoy and find significance in a range of activities involving intellectual, physical, creative and emotional experiences.

    Over the course of two years students will plan, complete, gather evidence for, and reflect on extracurricular experiences that develop creativity (C), activity (A), and service (S). They will have a CAS advisor to meet with and share quarterly progress. They will also complete a CAS Project and a Collaborative Service Project. CAS instruction and progress is managed through Google classroom, and group and advisor meetings during Discovery. CAS is a requirement for IB diploma candidates, but it is also a great opportunity for students wishing to challenge themselves beyond the classroom, explore their interests, and enrich their on-going activities. A willingness to try things out of your comfort zone and good self-management skills are key to having a valuable experience.

    Units of Study
    Introducing CAS: Focus on CAS Strands
    Managing CAS: Focus on Google CAS Folder
    Planning a Meaningful CAS Experience: Focus on Personal Profile and Interview 1
    Understanding CAS Stages: Focus on Reflection and Demonstration
    Meeting CAS Expectations: Focus on the CAS Project and the Collaborative Service Project
    Archiving CAS Progress: Focus on Quarterly Reviews
    Reflecting on CAS: Focus on Interim Review and Interview 2
  • IB CAS 2 - Grade 12

    Prerequisite:  IB CAS 1 and permission of IB DP Coordinator
    Additional Fee:  A fee applies to all students for IB assessment.
    This is an ungraded after school opportunity for students desiring to enrich their extracurricular life. Completion of all CAS components is required for a student to be recognized as an IB CAS candidate on their Trinity transcript.

    This is the second year of the two year CAS experience. CAS aims to develop students who are: 1) reflective thinkers- they understand their own strengths and limitations, identify goals and devise strategies for personal growth, 2) willing to accept new challenges and new roles, 3) aware of themselves as members of communities with responsibilities towards each other and the environment, 4) active participants in sustained, collaborative projects, and 5) balanced- they enjoy and find significance in a range of activities involving intellectual, physical, creative and emotional experiences.

    Over the course of two years students will plan, complete, gather evidence for, and reflect on extracurricular experiences that develop creativity (C), activity (A), and service (S). They will have a CAS advisor to meet with and share quarterly progress. They will also complete a CAS Project and Collaborative Service Project. CAS instruction and progress is managed through Google classroom, and group and advisor meetings during Discovery. CAS is a requirement for IB diploma candidates, but it is also a great opportunity for students wishing to challenge themselves beyond the classroom, explore their interests, and enrich their on-going activities. A willingness to try things out of your comfort zone and good self-management skills are key to having a valuable experience.

    Units of Study
    Assessing CAS Progress: Focus on Summer Review and Reflection
    Meeting CAS Expectations: Focus on Learning Outcomes 6 and 7
    Archiving CAS Progress: Focus on Quarterly Reviews
    Evaluating the CAS Experience: Focus on Final Reflection and Interview 3
    Completing CAS: Focus on the CAS Portfolio
  • IB independent Research 1 - Grade 11

    .5 Credit
    Prerequisites: IB diploma candidate or recommendation from teacher in subject area and permission from the IB DP Coordinator
    Additional Fee:  This course has an IB examination component.  IB fees will be incurred in IB Independent Research 2.  
    IB Independent Research 2 must be completed for final recognition and credit for IB Independent Research 1.

    This second semester course is for juniors in the IB diploma program or juniors who wish to be an IB Extended Essay candidate. Part 1 includes formation of a research question, creation of a research strategy, building a supporting bibliography, refining a thesis, and developing an outline. Significant summer work is common for preparation for IB Independent Research 2.  Students learn through a combination of class work, discussion, and the completion of online modules. The ability to work independently is essential.

    Units of Study
    Introduction to the Extended Essay
    Research Cycle
    Research and Writing
  • IB Independent Research 2 - Grade 12

    .5 Credit
    Prerequisite: Teacher recommendation based on the expectation of B or higher in IB Independent Research 1
    Additional Fee:  This course has an IB examination component. A fee applies to all students in the course.
    Completion of IB Independent Research 2 is required for a student to be recognized as an IB Extended Essay candidate and to receive credit on their Trinity transcript.  Significant summer work is common.

    This first semester course is for seniors in the IB diploma program or seniors completing their IB Extended Essay candidacy. Part 2 includes creating, editing, evaluating and revising the research paper and a final interview on the process with the faculty supervisor. The final draft of the Extended Essay will be awarded a grade by the International Baccalaureate Organization.

    Units of Study
    Review and Revision
    Reflection and Submission
  • IB Theory of Knowledge 1 - Grade 11

    .5 Credit
    Prerequisite:  IB diploma candidate or teacher recommendation
    Additional Fee:  This course has an IB examination component.  IB fees will be incurred in IB Theory of Knowledge 2.
    Students enrolled in IB Theory of Knowledge 1 are expected to take IB Theory of Knowledge 2 in their senior year for final credit for Parts 1 and 2

    How do we know? As a central part of the International Baccalaureate (IB) program, the Theory of Knowledge class (TOK) asks students and their teachers to consider the nature of knowledge, how we learn and know, and what role knowledge plays in a diverse and complex global society.

    The aims of the TOK course are for students to:
    -make connections between a critical approach to the construction of knowledge and the academic disciplines and the wider world
    -develop an awareness of how individuals and communities construct knowledge and how this is critically examined
    -develop an interest in the diversity and richness of cultural perspectives and an awareness of personal and ideological assumptions
    -critically reflect on their own beliefs and assumptions, leading to more thoughtful, responsible, and purposeful lives
    -understand that knowledge brings responsibility, which leads to commitment and action

    This course is a year-long elective for juniors and seniors, and is required for full IB diploma candidates. The course begins second semester of the junior year (ToK 1) and continues through the first semester of the senior year (ToK 2). Non-diploma candidate students who wish to take the course should be open minded and curious about who we are as learners and knowers, and be able to think abstractly and work independently.

    Units of Study
    Introduction to Thinking and Knowing
    Reality Check
    Purpose and Value
    Connections
    Knower/s
  • IB Theory of Knowledge 2 - Grade 12

    .5 Credit
    Prerequisite:  Teacher recommendation based on the expectation of B or higher in IB Theory of Knowledge 1
    Additional Fee:  This course has an IB examination component. A fee applies to all students in the course.
    IB Theory of Knowledge 2 must be completed for final credit for Parts 1 and 2.

    The second part of the Theory of Knowledge (ToK) program is a first semester course for seniors.  It continues to challenge students and their teachers to reflect critically on diverse ways of knowing and areas of knowledge, and to consider the role which knowledge plays in a global society. It encourages students to become aware of themselves as thinkers, to reflect on the complexity of knowledge, and to recognize the need to act responsibly in an increasingly interconnected world. Concepts are investigated through means of guided activities. Students are expected to engage actively in discussion, model the IB Learner Profile, and articulate their viewpoints with strong oral and written communication skills.

    Units of Study
    Representing Reality
    Perspectives
    Presentation (Internal Assessment)
    Essay (External Assessment)
  • IB Language A: Literature Self-Taught - Grade 11

    Grade 11
    1 Credit
    Prerequisite:  IB diploma candidate and permission of IB DP Coordinator
    Additional Fee:  IB examination fees will be incurred the second year of the course.

    This is the first year of a two-year independent study course available for IB diploma candidates whose first language is not English. In the course, the student will study a range of texts from different periods, styles and genres in his or her first language while developing the ability to engage in close, detailed analysis of individual texts. The student will also develop skills in both oral and written expression and write a world literature paper. Approval for the course depends on previous academic experience in the first language and the study of literature, demonstration of independent-learning skills, and future needs of the student. Any interested non-IB diploma candidate can see the IB DP Coordinator for course availability.

    Units of Study
    Reading Analytically – New Criticism and Post colonialism
    Writing Analytically - Body Paragraph 1
    Non-fiction Read / Write - Body Paragraph 2
    Read / Write Contemporary Fiction - Practice Written Assignment 1
    Drama and Psychoanalytic Criticism – Group Presentations
    Queer Theory – Practice Written Assignment 2
    Critical Research – Individual Oral Presentations
    Presentation
    IB Written Assignment
  • IB Language A: Literature Self-Taught SL - Grade 12

    1 Credit
    Prerequisite:  Satisfactory completion of first year of course and permission of IB DP Coordinator
    Additional Fee:  Students in this course are expected to take the IB exam. A fee applies to all students taking this exam.

    This is the second year of a two-year independent study course available for IB diploma candidates whose first language is not English. The student will continue to study a range of texts from different periods, styles and genres in his or her first language while developing the ability to engage in close, detailed analysis of individual texts. The student will continue to develop skills in both oral and written expression and complete required IB assessments. Demonstration of good self-management skills in grade 11 is essential.

    Units of Study
    Analyzing Rhetoric and Investigating the Impact of Historical and Cultural Context: Prose Other Than Fiction
    Analyzing Fiction/Drama and the Craft of the Writer
    Analyzing and Interpreting Poetry
    Preparing for the Individual Oral Commentary
    Drama Study: How Dialogue Directs a Scene
    Drama Study: Crafting Character, Conflict, and Setting
    Drama Study: Past and Present- Comparing Classic and Contemporary Works
    Preparing for Paper I and Paper II Exams

IB French

List of 2 items.

  • IB French B SL - Grades 11-12

    Grades 11-12
    1 Credit
    Prerequisite: French 3 Honors or French 4 Honors and teacher recommendation
    Additional Fee: $10.00 for French magazine subscription. Students in grade 12 enrolled in this course are expected to take the IB exam. A fee applies to all students taking this exam.  Students in grade 11 who do not plan to take IB French HL in their senior year are required to complete a virtual component of the course outside of class that will total 28 hours throughout the year. These students are also expected to take the IB exam.  Please see the information in the Overview section about IB exams.

    This course prepares students for the IB French Language Exams. The IB grade is determined by four factors. One factor is the internal assessment (IA) grade, which is scored by the instructor through various oral activities, the most significant being the 15-minute individual oral presentation/discussion, to take place in the second semester. There will also be a larger written activity which is externally assessed. Two additional factors occur on the scheduled IB exam days, and include a 250-word essay in French, as well as various questions and short answers based on authentic French-language reading materials.

    IB French SL consists of activities to develop skills that will effectively prepare students for these components, including daily speaking practice that targets grammar and vocabulary. Debates, interactive oral activities, and small writing assignments are regular tasks. The IB rubrics, in whole or in part, are used to evaluate most oral and written activities. Students explore IB themes through film, contemporary and classic literature, art, images, video, online audio, and current events from the French-speaking world.

    In concordance with the aims of the IB Organization:  IB French seeks to promote understanding of another culture through the study of a second language. The aim of all IB programs is to develop internationally minded people, who, recognizing their common humanity and shared guardianship of the planet, help to create a better and more peaceful world.

    Units of Study
    Salutations
    Le Monde Francophone
    Le Media et Moi
    La Technologie et l'education de demain
    La Santé et Bien Etre
    Planete verte et bleue
    Written Assignment
  • IB French B HL - Grade 12

    1 Credit
    Prerequisite: Teacher recommendation based on the expectation of B or higher in IB French B SL
    Additional Fee: Students enrolled in this course are expected to take the IB exam. A fee applies to all students taking this exam.

    This course prepares students for the IB French Language Exam in the higher level, or HL. The IB grade is determined by four factors. One factor is the internal assessment (IA) grade, which is scored by the instructor through various oral activities, the most significant being the 15-minute individual oral presentation/discussion, to take place in the second semester. There will also be a larger written activity which is externally assessed.  Two additional factors occur on the scheduled IB exam days, and include a 400-word essay in French, as well as various questions and short answers based on authentic French-language reading materials.

    IB French HL consists of activities to develop skills that will effectively prepare students for these components, including daily speaking practice that targets grammar and vocabulary. Debates, interactive oral activities, and writing assignments, readings from classic French literature are regular tasks. The IB rubrics, in whole or in part, are used to evaluate most oral and written activities.  Students explore IB themes through film, contemporary and classic literature, art, images, video, online audio, and current events from the French-speaking world.

    In concordance with the aims of the IB Organization: IB French seeks to promote understanding of another culture through the study of a second language. The aim of al IB programs is to develop internationally minded people, who, recognizing their common humanity and shared guardianship of the planet, help to create a better and more peaceful world.

    Units of Study
    L'Amitié
    Technologie
    Immigration
    Global Issues, (Conservation et Ecologie)
    Social relations
    Médias (Publicité, La France Vue par le Monde)

IB Latin

List of 2 items.

  • IB Latin SL - Grades 11-12

    1 Credit
    Prerequisite: Latin 3 Honors or Latin 4 Honors and teacher recommendation
    Additional Fee:  Students in grade 12 enrolled in this course are expected to take the IB exam. A fee applies to all students taking this exam.  Students in grade 11 who do not plan to take IB Latin HL in their senior year are required to complete a virtual component of the course outside of class that will total 28 hours throughout the year. These students are also expected to take the IB exam.  A fee applies to all students taking the exam. Please see the information in the Overview section about IB exams.

    The course involves intensive study of Latin literary works by multiple authors to prepare students for the sight translation, prepared translation, and analysis portions of the IB Latin SL exam. All IB students are required to complete an Internal Assessment research dossier on a classical-themed topic. Students learn through group translations in class, discussion of cultural and historical contexts, and review of grammar and vocabulary. Skills emphasized are accurate translations of Latin text and literary analysis. To be successful in this class, students need to have a strong foundation in Latin grammar, be open-minded, diligent, and analytical.

    Units of Study
    Ovid’s Metamorphoses
    Love Poetry - Catullus and Horace
    Villains - Vergil, Livy, and Sallust
    Internal Assessment
    IB Exam Review
  • IB Latin HL - Grade 12

    1 Credit
    Prerequisite: Teacher recommendation based on the expectation of B or higher in IB Latin SL
    Additional Fee: Students enrolled in IB Latin HL are expected to take the IB exam. A fee applies to all students taking this exam.

    The course involves advanced, intensive study of Latin literary works by multiple authors to prepare students for the sight translation, prepared translation, and analysis portions of the IB Latin HL exam. All IB students are required to complete an Internal Assessment research dossier on a classical-themed topic. Students learn through group translations in class, discussion of cultural and historical contexts, and review of grammar and vocabulary. Skills emphasized are accurate translations of Latin text and literary analysis. This is a year long class for seniors.  To be successful in this class, students need to have a strong foundation in Latin grammar, be open-minded, diligent, and analytical.

    Units of Study
    Further Exploration of Ovid's Metamorphoses
    Further Exploration of Love Poetry
    Further Exploration of Villains
    Internal Assessment
    IB Exam Review

IB Spanish

List of 2 items.

  • IB Spanish B SL - Grades 11-12

    1 Credit
    Prerequisite: Spanish 3 Honors or Spanish 4 Honors and teacher recommendation
    Additional Fee:  Students in grade 12 enrolled in this course are expected to take the IB exam. A fee applies to all students taking this exam.  Students in grade 11 who do not plan to take IB Spanish HL in their senior year are required to complete a virtual component of the course outside of class that will total 28 hours throughout the year. These students are also expected to take the IB exam.  A fee applies to all students taking the exam. Please see the information in the Overview section about IB exams.

    This course prepares students for the IB Spanish Language Exams. The IB grade is determined by four factors. One factor is the internal assessment (IA) grade, which is scored by the instructor through various oral activities, the most significant being the 15-minute individual oral presentation/discussion, to take place in the second semester. There will also be a larger written assignment (WA) which is externally assessed.  Two additional factors occur on the scheduled IB exam days, and include a 250-word essay in Spanish, as well as various questions and short answers based on authentic Spanish-language reading materials.

    IB Spanish SL consists of activities to develop skills that will effectively prepare students for these components, including daily speaking practice that targets grammar and vocabulary. Debates, interactive oral activities, and small writing assignments are regular tasks. The IB rubrics, in whole or in part, are used to evaluate most oral and written activities. Students taking this course should be open minded and curious about other perspectives. They should be independent learners able to synthesize concepts in reading, writing, listening, and speaking activities.

    In concordance with the aims of the IB Organization: IB Spanish seeks to promote understanding of another culture through the study of a second language. The aim of all IB programs is to develop internationally minded people, who, recognizing their common humanity and shared guardianship of the planet, help to create a better and more peaceful world.

    Units of Study
    Vacations and Travel
    Noise
    Hats
    Global Epidemics
    Immigration and Stereotypes
    Ethics in Science and Technology
    The Art of Kahlo, Gaudí, and Botero
    Your Personality
    Food, Dependencies, and Obsessions
    Difficulties in Adolescence
  • IB Spanish B HL - Grade 12

    1 Credit
    Prerequisite: Teacher recommendation based on the expectation of B or higher in IB Spanish B SL
    Additional Fee: Students enrolled in IB Spanish HL are expected to take the IB exam. A fee applies to all students taking this exam.

    The International Baccalaureate Organization’s expressed mission is to encourage students to be knowledgeable and inquiring, but also caring and compassionate. There is a strong emphasis on encouraging students to develop intercultural understanding, open-mindedness, and the attitudes necessary for them to respect and evaluate a range of points of view.  The goals of IB Spanish Higher Level are directly aligned with IB's mission. Over the course of the year students will develop a fluent or near fluent proficiency in the Spanish language while exploring various global themes, issues and Spanish and Latin American literature.

    Students will enhance their skills in communicating clearly and effectively in a range of situations, demonstrating linguistic competence and intercultural understanding; using language appropriate to a range of interpersonal and/or cultural contexts; understanding and using language to express and respond to a range of ideas with accuracy and fluency, organizing ideas on a range of topics, in a clear, coherent and convincing manner; understanding, analyzing and responding to a range of written and spoken texts; and understanding and using works of literature written in the target language of study.

    The course explores content through a variety of sources including music, dance, art, literature, feature films, historical records, documentary films and more. This course is recommended for students with a genuine desire to become fluent in Spanish and a strong interest in global issues with a focus on Latin America.

    Units of Study
    Dominican Republic and Haiti: The Birth of the Americas
    Globalization: A World Adjusting to Constant Change - A Latin American Focus
    Literature of Latin America: Magical Realism and Social Satire
    Cuba: An Endless Revolution
    IB Exam Preparation and skill Building